The sun, and especially UV radiation, also has a negative effect with excessive exposure
For example, UV-B rays induce sunburn. Even a slight redness on the skin in the evening is considered sun erythema and contributes to an increase in the risk of skin cancer, as it can cause DNA damage in the epidermis. Furthermore, UV-B rays weaken our skin as they have been shown to suppress the epidermal immune system and can also break down important lipids in our skin barrier. The result is (sun-) sensitive skin.
Increased risk of skin cancer
The UV-A rays of sunlight can even penetrate far into the dermis. There they can lead to genetic mutations, which is why there is a serious risk of specific forms of skin cancer. Furthermore, they induce free radicals in the dermis. The resulting oxidative stress in turn leads to the destruction of dermal structures such as collagen and elastic fibers, which becomes visible as premature skin aging. Furthermore, UV radiation induces various enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which cause degradation of dermal matrix components, which also leads to premature skin aging.
However, UV rays are not the only cause of extrinsic skin aging.
Studies over the last 15 years show that all spectral regions (UV, visible light [VL] and near infrared [IR]) induce free radical formation and thus promote premature skin aging by modulating the expression of MMPs and inflammatory processes in human skin. Both experimental and human clinical studies have shown that infrared A radiation leads to premature wrinkling. SPFs protect against UV radiation, but cannot protect against the damaging effects of infrared light and the visible blue light of the sun.
This is where antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, take effect.
Thus, it is scientifically proven that vitamin C protects against oxidative stress, which is induced to a high degree by infrared A rays. Vitamin E has a stabilizing effect on the skin barrier and thus protects the skin from light-induced skin aging. In addition, a study published in 2015 demonstrated for the first time that antioxidants such as vitamin C and E can effectively protect the skin from infrared A radiation. Vitamin C is also the ideal active ingredient for sun-damaged skin. A large number of studies have shown that vitamin C, in addition to its antioxidant properties, has an anti-inflammatory effect and also has a lightening effect against hyperpigmentation. Furthermore, it is an essential co-factor in collagen production. As early as 2003, scientists were able to demonstrate in a randomized, placebo-controlled study that 5% vitamin C leads to a significant improvement in micro-relief as well as wrinkles after 6 months of application to the skin, thus contributing to a visible improvement in photodamaged skin. Since vitamin C is very unstable, it is a real cosmetic science challenge to find stable formulations that lead to optimal results on the skin. Novel technologies, such as those from reveel by MedSkin Solutions allow vitamin C to remain stable in its most active form until applied to the skin. The product is said to achieve a 31% improvement in skin elasticity and a 27% reduction in wrinkle depth.
However, sun-damaged skin needs not only a balance of antioxidants, but equally a balance of moisture. The B-vitamin panthenol is one of the most effective moisturizers because its chemical properties give it the ability to easily penetrate the stratum corneum and thus moisturize the skin. On the other hand, studies show that it significantly strengthens the skin barrier. Collagen is also a real moisture booster. Applied topically, it leads to a visible and measurable improvement in stratum corneum hydration, so that moisture losses can be compensated. Another study suggests that soluble collagen can immediately diminish superficial wrinkles. When applied to the skin over a three-month period, it can also counteract MMP-induced extracellular matrix damage. An innovation in the field of collagen is the technology of MedSkin Solutions Dr. Suwelack, which allows the native form of collagen to be stabilized, secured and freshly activated on the skin.
Use of a sunshade
To prevent sun damage, a sun protection factor should always be selected according to the skin phototype and the current UV index. This means thatthe lighter the skin, the shorter the self-protection time in the sun and the higher the selected light protection filter should be. In order to take care not only of oneself but also of the environment, attention should be paid to the ecological footprint of the active ingredient when selecting a product. For example, since last year individual UV filters have been banned in various tourist coastal regions of the USA, as well as in Mexico and parts of Thailand, because they are suspected of having a negative impact on the marine ecosystem. These UV filters include the organic filters octocrylene, benzophenone-3, and oxybenzone, as well as the inorganic filters titanium oxide and zinc oxide as nanoparticles.